外贸知识

How to Use a Knife, Fork, and Spoon 怎么使用刀子, 叉子, 和匙子

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AnIntroduction
Therulesthatspecifyhowknife,fork,andspoonmustbeusedhaveevolvedalongwiththeformsoftheutensilsthemselves.Ingeneral,theserulesareexplicitlyintendedtopreventtheutensilsfromappearingthreatening.MargaretVisser,inherbookTheRitualsofDinner,pointsoutthatetiquetteandtheritualitimposeshelpstocontroltheviolenceinherentinthepreparationandservingofmeals.Animalsareslaughteredandconsumed,theguest-hostrelationshipis,initself,acomplicatedinterweavingoftheimpositionofobligationandsuspensionofhostility,andtheordinarytableknifeisrelatedtoactualweaponsofwar.Consequently,flatwareishelddelicately,carefullybalancedontheprescribedfingersandguidedbythefingertips.Toholdanyutensilinafistortomanipulateitinsuchawaythatispointedatanyonewouldhintatpotentialdanger,aswouldevensettingitdowninaninappropriateway.

HoldingaUtensil

Ingeneraluse,bothspoonandforkareheldhorizontallybybalancingthembetweenthefirstknuckleofthemiddlefingerandthetipoftheindexfingerwhilethethumbsteadiesthehandle.Theknifeisusedwiththetipoftheindexfingergentlypressingoutoverthetopofthebladetoguideasyoucut.

TheZigZagMethod

ByAmericancustom,whichwasbroughtaboutpartlybythelateintroductionoftheforkintotheculture,allthreeutensilsareintendedforuseprimarilywiththerighthand,whichisthemorecapablehandformostpeople.Thisleadstosomecomplicatedmaneuveringwhenfoods,suchasmeat,requiretheuseofknifeandforktoobtainabiteofmanageablesize.Whenthisisthecase,theforkisheldinthelefthand,turnedsothatthetinespointdownward,thebettertoholdthemeatinplacewhiletherighthandoperatestheknife.Afterabite-sizedpiecehasbeencut,thedinersetstheknifedownontheplateandtransferstheforktotherighthand,sothatitcanbeusedtocarrythenewlycutmorseltothemouth.EmilyPostcallsthisthe”zig-zag”style.

EuropeanStyle

TheEuropean,or”Continental,”styleofusingknifeandforkissomewhatmoreefficient,anditspracticeisalsocommonintheUnitedStates,whereleft-handedchildrenarenolongerforcedtolearntowieldaforkwiththeirrighthands.Accordingtothismethod,theforkisheldcontinuouslyinthelefthandandusedforeating.Whenfoodmustbecut,theforkisusedexactlyasintheAmericanstyle,exceptthatoncethebitehasbeenseparatedfromthewhole,itisconveyeddirectlytothemouthonthedownward-facingfork.Regardlessofwhichstyleisusedtooperateforkandknife,itisimportantnevertocutmorethanoneortwobitesatonetime.

Peas!

AnothersignificantdifferencebetweentheAmericanandtheContinentalstylesofusingknifeandforkistheAmericaninsistencethateventhemostawkwardandcontraryfoods(peasbeingthetraditionalexample)mustbecapturedbytheunaidedfork.InEuropeitispermittedtousetheknifeorasmallbitofbreadtoeaseastubbornitemontothefork.

Once-UsedPlacement

Therearenumerousrulesandprohibitionsregardingtheproperplacementofeatingutensilsoncetheyhavebeenused.Essentially,usedflatwaremustneverbeallowedtotouchthesurfaceofthetable,whereitmightdirtythecloth.Itisnotpropertoalloweventhecleanhandleofaknifeorforktorestontheclothwhiletheotherendliesontheplate.Attheendofacourse,autensilmustnotbeleftinanydishthatisnotflat–thesoupbowl,forexample,orashrimpcocktaildish,ateacuporaparfaitglass.Alltheseitemsareusuallypresentedwithaplateunderneaththebowlorcup,onwhichtheutensilmustbeplacedafteruse.

PlacementinGeneral

Thepositioningofknifeandforkwhennotinuseactsasasortofsemaphore,allowingthedinertoindicatethedegreetowhichheintendstopauseineating.Flatwareshouldalwaysbeplacedontheplateduringpausesbetweenbites.Ifthisistobeaveryshorttime,thereisnosetpattern.Forlongerwaits,perhapscausedbyadivertingtwistinthetableconversation,thedinerplacestheforkontheleftandknifeontheright,sothattheycrossoverthecenteroftheplate.Thedinerpreparingtopasshisplateforasecondhelpingplacestheforkandknifeparalleltoeachotherattherightsideoftheplate,sothatthereisroomforthefood.Whenthedinerhasfinished,hesignalsthisbysettingtheforkandknifeparalleltoeachother,sotheylieeitherhorizontallyacrossthecenteroftheplateorareonthediagonal,withthehandlespointingtotheright.Thecuttingedgeoftheknifebladeshouldfacetowardthediner(again,avoidingallpossibleaggressiveimplications),andtheforkmaybeplacedwiththetineseitherupordown.

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