外贸知识

Interfaith Etiquette Guide 宗教礼仪指南

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INTERFAITHCOURTESY

Thereareimportantdifferencesandsimilaritiesbetweenfaithexpressions,thebeliefoftheRomanCatholicandthatoftheJew–betweenwhattheQuakerbelievesandwhatguidestheBuddhistortheEasternOrthodox.Onekeytoharmoniouscommunitylifeiscourtesy–truecourtesythatrespectstherightsandfeelingsofall.Courtesyandfriendlyknowledgeaboutyourneighborhelppreventtensions,andbuildastrongercommunity.

  • RELIGIOUSDIETARYLAWS

  • ManyJewsobserverestrictionsconcerningfoodanditspreparation,butnaturally,anon-Jewishhomeisnotequippedtofollowthem.However,itisimportanttoknowthatpeoplewhomaintainakosherhomewillusuallynoteatthefollowingfoodsawayfromhome:shellfish,porkormeat.ManyJewswillnoteatmostfoodsawayfromhomeduringPassover.
  • Muslimsdonoteatporkorshellfish,nordrinkalcohol.
  • IfaRomanCatholicistobeaguestonAshWednesday,oronFridaysinLentitisconsideratetoplanthemealaroundfishorothernon-meatdishes.
  • MostProtestantsdonotobservedietarylaws,althoughsomeabstainfromalcoholicbeverages.SeventhDayAdventistsrefrainfromalcoholandarevegetarians.
  • OrthodoxChristiansobservevariousabstinencepractices.ExceptforspecialtimesduringtheliturgicalyearsuchastheweekafterEaster(BrightWeek),OrthodoxChristiansabstainfrommeatand/ordairyproductseachWednesdayandFriday.Beforemajorfeastdaysinthechurch,forexample,Easter,Christmas,orAssumptionoftheVirginMary,abstinencefromallmeatanddairyproductsisexpected.Theperiodoffastingrangesfromonedaytotheforty-dayGreatLentenperiodbeforeEaster.DuringthemonthofRamadanMuslimsdonoteatordrinkfromdawntodusk.
  • RELIGIOUSHOLIDAYS

    InpluralisticAmerica,weareconsciousofmanyofthemajorreligiousfestivalsof:

  • CHRISTIANS:AshWednesday,PalmSunday,GoodFriday,Easter,Pentecost,Christmas
  • JEWS:RoshHashanah(NewYear),YomKippur(DayofAtonement),Sukkot(FallHarvest),Hannukah,Purim(VictoryoverHaman),Passover(sevenoreightdaycelebrationoffreedom),Shavuot(givingoftheTorah)
  • MUSLIMS:Ramadan(monthofthefirstrevelationoftheQu’randuringwhichbelieversfastfor30daysindaylighthours,Eid-ul-Fitr(conclusionofRamadan),Eid-ul-Adha(Abraham’ssacrifice),Milad-un-Nabi(prophetMuhammad’sbirthday)
  • SERVICESATPLACEOFWORSHIP

    Whenattendingaserviceofanothercongregationaguestshowsproperrespectforthetraditionsandrulesofthatparticularhouseofworship,standingwhenothersstand,bowingtheheadatleastwhentheprayersaresaid,coveringoruncoveringtheheadasiscustomary.

    Inasynagogue,malesmaybeexpectedtowearayarmulkeorskullcap.

    Inamosque,beforeenteringaprayerhall,Muslimsandguestsremovetheirshoes.Muslimswashtheirhandsandfeet.Guestsareexpectedtowashtheirhandsandfeet,becauseprayersaresaidonthefloorcoveredwithcleanrugsorlinens.Women’sdressshowsonlyhandsandface.Thereareareasinthemosqueformenandwomentostandseparately.WhileprayingtogetherMuslimmenandwomendonotshakehandsorembracewithmembersoftheoppositesexorembracetheminpublic.

  • RITESOFPASSAGE

    Thebasicideaforallistheintroductionoftheindividualtothelifeofthecommunity,andgrowthinthatlifeissignaledbyspecialrites.

  • EASTERNORTHODOX
  • Birth:EasternOrthodoxchildrenhavejustonegivenname.Soonafterbirth,onoraboutthe40thday,theinfantandmothergotochurchonaSundaytobeblessed.ThispracticeiscalledaChurching.
  • Baptism:TheEasternOrthodoxconfirmsatthetimeofbaptisminearlyinfancy(usuallywithinthefirstyearoflife).FollowingChrist’scommandtobaptizeintheNameoftheFather,andtheSon,andtheHolySpirit,thechildisimmersedthreetimesinabaptismalfont.AtthistimethechildisgivenaChristianname,chrismated(confirmed),tonsured(cuttingofhair),andgivencommunion.Godparentsagreetomonitorthespiritualdevelopmentofthechild.ThebaptismalserviceisnormallyperformedonaSundayaftertheDivineLiturgy.Friendsandrelativesarealwaysinvitedtothisjoyousoccasionandtothecelebrationthattakesplaceafterwards.
  • Communion:Thechildispermittedtoreceivecommunionasaninfant.TheEucharistisinfactofferedateachDivineLiturgycelebratedeachSundayandonotherspecialdaysoftheliturgicalyeartobaptizedOrthodoxChristians.Itisnotofferedtonon-OrthodoxChristians.
  • Chrismation(Confirmation):ItistheOrthodoxpracticetoconfirmanindividualatthetimeofbaptism.
  • Marriage:ToOrthodoxChristiansmarriageisasacrament,ortousetheGreekword,mysterium,becauseChristispartofthemarriageandtheHolySpiritiscalledupontomakethecoupleoneflesh.Inaddition,atthemarriageservicethehusbandandwifearecrownedasthekingandqueenoftheirhomeandpotentialfamily,circlethealtarinthedanceofIsaiah,shareacommoncupofwine,andareblessedasGodblessedAbrahamandSarah,IsaacandRebecca,JoachimandAnna,ZechariasandElizabeth,andasthecoupleattheMarriageFeastatCana.Friendsandrelativesareinvitedtotheweddingserviceandthefollowingreceptiontocongratulateandtoblessthenewlymarriedcouple.
  • Death:NormalpracticeistoholdafuneralserviceintheChurchthreedaysafterdeath.Beforethen,callinghoursatafuneralhomeforonetotwodaysdependinguponthecircumstancesarearrangedtoallowfriendsandrelativestopayrespecttothedepartedandtoconsolethefamily.EachdaybeforeburialthepriestconductstheTrisagionPrayersofmercyatthewake.AfterthefuneralandfinalTrisagionatthecemetery,aMealofMercyispreparedandofferedattheChurchoratanearbyrestaurantforthefamilyandfriends.Duringthisperiodflowersmaybesenttothefuneralhome,and/ordonationsmadetotheChurch,and/ordonationsmadeinthedeceasedperson’snametoadesignatedcharity.Ithasbecomecustomarythatblackorsomberclothesareworntothewakeandfuneral.IntheOrthodoxtradition,however,thecolortobewornbythepriestiswhiteduringthefuneralservice.Out-of-townfriendsandrelativeswhoarenotabletoattendthefuneralmaysendflowersand/ormessagesofcondolencestothefuneralhomeortothefamilyhome.
  • Namedays:WithinEasternOrthodoxy,thereisthepracticeofcelebratingapatronsaint’sfeastday–thesaintforwhomoneisnamed.It’sappropriatetooffercongratulations.
  • ROMANCATHOLIC

    Catholicchildrenhavejustonesetofgodparents.Abaptizednon-Catholicmaybeaskedtobeoneofthegodparentsorofficialwitness.Catholicchildrenoftenreceiveoneortwonames,oneofwhichisfrequentlythatofasaint.

  • Birth:It’sacceptabletosendflowers,cards,orgiveasmallgiftforthebaby.AmongCatholics,baptismusuallyoccursduringthechild’sfirstfewmonthsoflife.BaptismgenerallytakesplaceonaSundayafternoonorataregularSundayliturgy.
  • Communion:CommunionisadministeredtoCatholics,startingaboutthesecondgrade,whetherornottheyareconfirmedafteraperiodofinstruction.Catholicsgenerallydonotoffercommuniontonon-Catholics.
  • Confirmation:WesternCatholicsgenerallyadministertheSacramentofConfirmationduringhighschoolyears.ConfirmationisperceivedasthegiftoftheHolySpirittoempoweronetoliveasaChristianintheworldbutisalsousedasanopportunitytotorenewone’sbaptismalcommitment.EasternCatholicsgenerallyhavethesamepracticeastheOrthodoxofconfirmingatthetimeofbaptismininfancy.Itisappropriatetocongratulatethenewlyconfirmedandjoininthefamilycelebration.
  • Marriage:MarriageoftwoChristiansisconsideredasacramentbyCatholics.Catholicsareexpectedtobemarriedbeforeapriestandtwowitnesses.TheweddingmusttakeplaceinachurchunlessaCatholicismarryingaMuslimorJew.CatholicsmarryingChristiansofotherchurchesarereadilygrantedpermissiontobemarriedinthechurchoftheotherChristianbeforehisorherpriestorministeraslongastheCatholicaffirmshisorherintenttocontinuelivingtheCatholicfaithandendeavoringtosharethatfaithwiththeiroffspring.TheofficialwitnessatthemarriageofaCatholicneednotbeaCatholic.
  • Death:Ifcallinghours(wake)areheld,itisappropriatetovisitandoffercondolences.Flowersmaybesenttothefuneralhomeorhomeofthebereaved.It’salsoappropriatetosendflowerstothehomeunlessthefamilyrequestsnoflowers.
  • PROTESTANTS

    Itisacceptabletosendflowersandcardsandsendasmallgiftforanewbaby.

  • Birth:SomeProtestantchurchesnowprovidealiturgicalcelebrationofthanksgivingforthebirthoradoptionofachild.I
  • Baptism:InfantbaptismiscommoninmostProtestantchurches.SomeProtestantdenominationspermittwoormoregodparents.Somewaituntilthechildisofanagetounderstandthebaptismalceremonybeforeperformingit,thusemphasizingthepersonalfaithcommmitment.SomeProtestantsdonotbaptizeatall.
  • ThechildrenofCongregationalistparentsmaybebaptizedatanyage,andgodparentsarenottraditional,thoughpermissible.EpiscopaliansandLutheransrequiregodparents(orsponsors)fortheirchildren.
  • ForBaptists,actualbaptismwithcompleteimmersiontakesplaceanytimeaftertheageoftwelve,whentheindividualisbelievedtobeabletomakeaFree-willdecisiontocomeintothechurch.
  • Presbyteriansbaptizeatanyage,withoutgodparents.Aftertheageoftwelve,theindividualiselectedtothechurch.
  • Methodistsbaptizeatanytimeandthechildhasatleastonesponsor.TheparentsmakeastatementatthetimeofbaptismpromisingtobringupthechildintheChristianwayoflife.Quakersdonothaveachristeningceremony.
  • Communion:InsomeProtestantchurchestheindividualministermayadministerthesacramenttothebaptizedathisowndiscretion.InmostProtestantchurches,thosewhoacceptJesusChristmayreceivecommunion.
  • Confirmation:ConfirmationisgenerallyunderstoodasthematureactoffaithwherebyapersonacceptstheBaptismalvows,takenonher/hisbehalf,asher/hisownresponsibility.ItisseenasanintegralpartoftheinitiationritebeguninBaptism.
  • Marriage:InProtestantchurches,marriageisrecognizedasasacredevent,preferablyperformedbyanordainedminister/priest.Increasingly,mostclergyrequireaseriouspre-marriagecounselingprogramwiththeengagedcouple.Alocalchurchisconsideredtheproperplaceforthewedding,butoccasionally,forgoodreason,thesettingmaybeelsewhere.
  • Death:Ministrytothebereavedisveryimportant.However,thereisnouniformityconcerning”callinghours,”whethertheburialservice(funeral)willbefromthechurchorthelocalfuneralhome,orwhetherornotflowersareappropriate.Itisalwaysappropriate,however,toexpressone’scondolencestothebereavedandrespectforthedeceasedbywritinganote,attendingthe”callinghours”iftheyareheld,attendingtheburialserviceunlessitisprivate,andbyofferingatangibleexpressionofcaring(food,flowers,acontributiontotheperson’schurchorcharity)unlessrequestednottodoso.
  • JUDAISM

    Foreventsofjoy,whenanon-Jewisinvited,itisimportanttoattendandeatwhatisprovided.

  • Birth:AmongreligiousJews,thedayofcircumcisionisthesamedayastheboychild-naming.

    AJewishchildisusuallynamedafteradeceasedperson.Biblicalnamesareoftenused.

    Agirlreceiveshernamewhenherfathergoestoasynagogueassoonaspossibleaftersheisborn,usuallyonaSabbath(whichisfromFridayatsunsetuntilSaturdayatsunset).ThefatheriscalleduptotheTorahduringtheTorahreadingservice,andrecitesablessingovertheTorah.TheRabbithenrecitesaprayerinbehalfofthenewborngirlandherparents.Atthattime,theHebrewnameisgiven.ThereisnoJewishrequirementfortheappointmentofgodparents.However,manyJewshaveadoptedthecustomofappointinggodparentsatthebirthofaboyoragirl.

  • Bar/BatMitzvah:ItisawidelyobservedtraditionforJewstocelebratetheBarMitzvahofaboywhenhereachestheageofthirteen.ReformandConservativeJewsequallycelebratetheBatMitzvahofgirlswhentheyreachtheageofthirteen.
  • Confirmation:ConfirmationisaceremonyheldinReformandsomeConservativecongregations.ItoriginatedinGermanyintheearlypartofthenineteenthcentury.IttakesplaceontheFestivalofShavuot(weeks)whenJewscelebratethegivingoftheTorahtotheJewishpeople.Ninthortenthgradestudentsconfirmtheirfaithwithanappropriatereligiousceremonyatthattime.ItispartofreligiousschooltrainingforJewishchildren.
  • Marriage:Marriage,accordingtoJewishtradition,isthenaturalstateofmanandwoman:”Enjoylifewiththewifewhomyoulove…”(Ecclesiastes9:9).Inpasttradition,anengagementceremonyprecededtheweddingceremony.Today,theceremoniesarejoinedtogether.Themaritalcanopy(Chupah),maritaldocument(Ketubah),exchangeofrings,recitationofthesevenweddingblessings,andbreakingoftheglassareamongthetraditionalpracticesperformedatweddingceremonies.Itisthecustomthatarabbiandcantorofficiate.

    Guestsgenerallydonotparticipateintheceremony,butwitnessthejoyoftheceremony.Dietaryregulations(theobservanceofKashmut)mayapplytotheweddingreception.TheydoapplyinaConservativeorOrthodoxwedding.

  • Death:Itiscustomaryforfriendsandneighborstoprepareforthemournerthefirstmealafterthefuneral,andtoencouragethebereavedtopartakeofthefood.Donotbringnon-kosherfoodtoakosherhome.Itisimportant,however,toknowthatoneneversendsflowerstoaJewishfuneral.CondolencecallsshouldbemadenolaterthantheShivah(sevendays)periodofmourning.Thesevendaysarecountedfromthedayofthefuneral.Anhouroftheseventhdayiscountedasafullday.Visitsshouldbemade,therefore,withinthesixdaysafterthefuneral.ManyJews,however,observeShivah-mourningperiodforthesedaysonly.

    Itisagrowingcustomforclosefriendstosendflowerstothefamilyofthedeceasedsometimeduringtheweeksfollowingthefuneral(excepttoOrthodoxJews).

    FuneralsarenotencouragedinOrthodoxsynagogues.Therefore,OrthodoxJewishfuneralsareusuallyheldinmortuarychapelsorathome,withthemenandwomenassemblingsidebyside,menwithcoveredheads.

    AmongOrthodoxandConservativeJewsitiscustomaryfortheimmediatefamilyandfriendstoreturntothehomeofthemournersimmediatelyfollowingtheintermentofthedeceased.Friendsinthecommunitycometothehomeofthemournersateveningtimeforsevendaysthereafter,forthepurposeofparticipatinginaworshipservice.It’scalled”Shivah,”whenthemournersdonotleavetheirhomesforanybusinessorsocialcontactsforsevendaysfollowingthedeathofalovedone.

    ReformJewsreturntothehomeofthemournersimmediatelyfollowingburialforabriefworshipservice.Thisreligiousserviceinthehomeisoptional,andisconductedbytheRabbioralaymanatthesuggestionofsomememberofthefamily.ReformJewsrefrainfrombusinessandsocialcontactsforacustomaryperiodofatleastthreedaysfollowingthedemiseofalovedone.

  • MUSLIM

  • Birth:AccordingtoIslamicbeliefs,achildisbornpureandinnocent.TheMuslimscelebratethebirthofachild,asachildisconsideredtobeagiftandtrustofAllah.AsfollowersoftheProphetAbraham’stradition,circumcisionofthemalechildisarequirementinIslam,preferablywithinaweekafterthebirth,child’shealthpermitting.
  • Aqiqah:Afterthebirthofachild,theparents(asapracticeoftheProphet),iffinanciallycapable,slaughteralamb/goatandsharethemeatwiththefamily,friendsandtheneedyasawayofthankingAllah.
  • CompletionoftheHolyQur’an:TheQur’anisthewordofAllah–theholybookofIslam.ThefirstthingaMuslimchildlearnsishowtoreadtheQur’an.ThecompletionoftheQur’anbyachildiscelebratedwithgreatpleasureandasenseoffulfillmentbythefamily.
  • FirstFastoftheChild:FastingduringthemonthofRamadanisthethirdpillarofIslam.Achildisencouragedtostartfastingwhenever(s)heisphysicallyabletodoso.FriendsandrelativesareinvitedforIFTAR(breakingthefast)whenachildfastsforthefirsttime.Achild’saccomplishmentiscelebratedbyfamily,friends,andrelatives.
  • TheMarriage(Al-Nikah):TheIslamicteachingsencourageMuslimstogetmarried,tolivetogetherinharmonywithmutualloveandrespect,tohavechildrenandtoraisethemasbelievingandpracticingMuslims.MarriageinIslamisamutualcommitmentbetweentwopersonsbeforeAllah.ItisnecessarythatthemarriageshouldbeadministeredinpublicbyanyadultMuslimandwitnessedbytwopersons.

    Theceremonymaybeperformedatanyconvenientandappropriategatheringplace,preferablyinamosque.ItisrequiredbyQur’anthatamangivehiswifesomesortofmarriagegift(MOHAIR)thathecanafford.Thisgiftishersbyright.

  • Death:Deathistheendofthepresentlife,butaMuslimbelievesinthelifehereafter.DeathisconsideredtobeAllah’swill.ForMuslims,deathisnotthefinalend,butatemporaryseparationofsoulfromthebodywhichwillbebroughtbacktolifeontheDayofJudgment.WhenaMuslimlearnsthenewsofaperson’sdeath,hesays:

    “InnaLillahaewaInnaElaihaeRajae’uon.”(Verily,untoAllahdowebelongandverily,untoHimshallwereturn–Quran2:156).

    RelativesandfriendsgatheratthehomeofthedeceasedPerson,givecomforttotheimmediatefamilymembers,recitetheQur’anandprayforAllah’sforgivenessandmercyforthedead.

    Relativesandfriendsgatheratthehomeofthedeceasedperson,givecomforttotheimmediatefamilymembers,recitetheQur’anandprayforAllah’sforgivenessandmercyforthedead.

    Thedeadbodyisburiedassoonaspossible;cremationandroutineautopsiesareforbidden.Theburialisthetoppriorityafterapersondiesandmusttakeplaceassoonasarrangementscanbemade.Noformalitiesorwaitingforanybodyshoulddelaytheburial.Therefore,friendsandrelativesexpeditetheprocessandcompletetheburial.Forburial,thebodyiswashed(amanbymenandawomanbyawoman).

    Burialshouldtakeplaceinthemostsoberanddignifiedmannerandtheresourcesshouldbesavedforthesurvivorsratherthanwastingthemonanexorbitantburial.Thefaceshowingisnotinthecultureoflslam,thoughcloserelativesmaydoso.

    Intheeventofamaledeath,hiswidowmustobserveawaitingperiodofaboutfourlunarmonths.Shemaygetmarriedafterthatperiod.Thisisnecessaryinordertodetermineherprobablepregnancywiththedeceasedhusband,andthereforethedistributionofhisbequesttohischildren.Thefriendsandrelativesareobligedtokeepthegrievedfamilyrelievedoftheburdenofpreparingmealsforthreedays.

    TherecitationoftheholyQur’anisrecommendedbythebedsideofapersonabouttodietofacilitatetheremembranceofAllah.Thefuneralprayer(service)isanobligationofMuslims.Itshouldbeobservedbyatleastsome,butnotnecessarilyall.Visitingthemournersduringthefirstthreedaysafterthedeathishighlyrecommended.Givenlslam’semphasisonmoderationandsimplicity,giftsofflowersandcandyarenotsuitable.Thenon-Muslimfriendscanshowtheirsympathyandloveinsomanyotherways,suchasbybeingpresentatthefuneralservicesorbypayingavisittothemourningfamily.Non-MuslimfriendsmayexpresstheirsympathytothebereavedfamilybysayingthatAllahshowHisMercytothedeceasedandforgivehim/her.

  • ModerationinCelebrationofFestivalsandSocialOccasions:Inthecelebrationofalloccasions,whethertheyareofreligiousnatureorofsocialcharacter,Islamadvocatesmoderationandneverallowsanindividualtoexceedthesocio-moralnormsofresponsibility.WhiletheEidsareoccasionsforjoyandhappinesstheyarecertainlynotoccasionsforfrivolity,overeating,etc.ThejoythataMuslimfeelsonEidisthespiritualjoyoffulfillmentachievedthroughdiscipline,piety,andcollectiveworshiptoAllah.EachoftheEiddaysbeginswithprayer(Salat)andisspentinalmsgiving,visitingfriendsandrelatives,andexchanginggiftsandgreetings.ThespiritofEidisthespiritofpeace,forgiveness,andtogetherness.

    Thespiritofmoderationalsoteachesonetoavoidextravaganceanddisplayofmaterialwealth.InIslamthesocialstatusandrankcomesnotwithmoneybutthroughpietyandobediencetoAllah.

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